Square fenders are also commonly used on the bow or stern of smaller tugs as pushing fender since they can be fitted closely together to reduce the risk of ropes or protrusions catching between adjacent sections.
History of Modern Shipping
The period from 1800 until the Second world War saw the rise of the regular service liners. This was the result of the transport of cargo and passengers between Europe and the colonies in the East and the West, and the increasing number of emigrants leaving for North America.
Shipbuilding changed slowly but steadily to facilitate the new demands using new technologies.
The main developments were:
Wood as main construction material was replaced by iron and later by steel.
Sailing ships were replaced by steam ships and later by motor ships.
New types of ships like tankers and reefers were developed.
A gradual improvement in speed, size and safety.
In general, the big and versatile trade vessels of this period were still in use even as late as the 1970s. Transportation of passengers, general cargo, oil, refrigerated cargo, animals and bulk with one and the same ship was very common. Even today’s multipurpose ships do not achieve this level of versatility.
After some initial hesitation, the period after the Second World War showed a continuous increase in world trade and thus in sea trade. This increase in global commerce, only interrupted by short period of relapse, lasts even to this day. In the beginning, this resulted in more and more ships, subsequently they became faster and bigger. A lot of smaller ships were then taken out of service. The modernization of shipbuilding and navigation led to the loss of many jobs in the sector. After the 1970’s more and more universal ships were replaced by specialized vessels that can carry only one type of cargo. This process had already started on a much smaller scale since 1900. These new vessels are : oil tanker, bitumen tankers, chemical tankers, container ships, heavy-cargo ships, cattle ships, reefers.
Passenger liners have been superseded almost entirely by planes, because of the large distances involved. However, after 1990 the number of passenger ships that specialized in luxury cruises have increased enormously.
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